Ceftriaxone, Pharmacology and Indication

Ceftriaxone is Third-generation cephalosporins, For the treatment of the infections (respiratory, skin, soft tissue) caused by S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, staphylococci, S. pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococci), E. coli, P. mirabilis, Klebsiella sp, coagulase-negative staph, pelvic inflammatory, septicemia, bone and joint, intraabdominal and meningitis also for prophylaxis pre and post operative.
Pharmacology : Ceftriaxone has in vitro activity against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The bactericidal activity of Ceftriaxone results from the inhibition of cell wall synthesis and is mediated through Ceftriaxone binding to penicillin binding proteins (PBPs). Ceftriaxone is stable against hydrolysis by a variety of beta-lactamases, including penicillinases, and cephalosporinases and extended spectrum beta-lactamases. Ceftriaxone chemical name is (6R,7R)-7-{[(2Z)-2-(2-amino-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)->2-(methoxyimino)acetyl]amino}-3-{[(2-methyl-5,6-dioxo-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)thio]methyl}-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid.

Indication :
Infection caused by pathogens sensitive to Ceftriaxone, eg respiratory tract infections, particularly pneumonia; ear, nose and throat infections; renal and urinary tract infection; sepsis; meningitis; infection in patients with impaired defense mechanism; abdominal infection (peritonis, infections of the biliary and gastrointestinal tracts), genital infection including gonorrhea.

Warning and Precautions:
- Before therapy with ceftriaxone is instituted, careful inquiry should made to determine whether the patient has had previous hypersensitivity reactions to cephalosporin, penecillins or other drugs.
- Ceftriaxone should not be used in pregnancy ( particularly in first semester )

Side Effect:
Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents including ceftriaxone, Other rare side effects : jaundice, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, glositis, stomatitis, rash, urticaria, oedema, hematological changes : eosinophilia, thrombocytosis, leucopenia and neutropenia.


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