Cefadroxil, Pharmacology and Indications

Cefadroxil chemical name is (6R,7R)-7-{[(2R)-2-amino-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl]amino}-3-methyl-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid. Cefadroxil is a first-generation cephalosporin antibacterial drug that is the para-hydroxy derivative of cefalexin.  
Pharmacology :
Cefadroxil is a semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic intended for oral administration. In vitro studies demonstrate that the cephalosporin are bactericidal because of their inhibition of cell wall synthetic. Cefadroxil has been shown to be active against Beta-hemolytic streptococci; Staphylococci; including penicillinase-producing strains; streptococcus ( Diplococcus ) pneumonia; Escherichia; Proteus mirabilis; Klebsiella Species; Moraxella ( Branhamella ) catarrhalis.
Pharmacokinetic :
Cefadroxil is almost completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. After doses of 500 mg and 1 g by mouth, peak plasma concentrations of about 16 and 30 micrograms/mL respectively are obtained after 1.5 to 2 hours. Although peak concentrations are similar to those of cefalexin, plasma concentrations are more sustained. Dosage with food does not appear to affect the absorption of cefadroxil. About 20% of cefadroxil is reported to be bound to plasma proteins. The plasma half-life of cefadroxil is about 1.5 hours and is prolonged in patients with renal impairment.
Cefadroxil is widely distributed to body tissues and fluids. It crosses the placenta and appears in breast milk. More than 90% of a dose of cefadroxil may be excreted unchanged in the urine within 24 hours by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion; peak urinary concentrations of 1.8 mg/mL have been reported after a dose of 500 mg. Cefadroxil is removed by haemodialysis.
Indication :
-          Upper and lower respiratory infections
-          Skin and soft tissue infections
-          Urinary tract infections
-          Other infection : osteomyelitis and septic arthritis
Adverse Reaction :
-          Gastrointestinal : symptoms of pseudomembranous colitis can appear during antibiotic treatment. Nausea and vomiting have been reported rarely. Administration with food decreases nausea and does not decrease absorption. Diarrhea has also occurred.
-          Hypersensitivity : Allergies ( in the form of rash, urticaria and usually subsided upon discontinuation of the drug
-          Other reactions have included genital pruritus, genital moniliasis vaginitis, moderate transient neutropenia and mirror elevations in serum transaminase.


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